Formas raras de glaucoma

Aunque glaucoma primario de ángulo abierto es el tipo más común de glaucoma, existen muchos otros tipos de trastornos oculares que se encuentran dentro del espectro del glaucoma.

Some less common forms of glaucoma are described below.


Neovascular glaucoma

Neovascular glaucoma is caused by the abnormal formation of new blood vessels in the iris and over the drainage canals of the eye. This type of glaucoma never occurs on its own and is always associated with other abnormalities, most often diabetes. The new blood vessels prevent fluid from the eye from leaving through the drainage network, causing increased eye pressure. This type of glaucoma is very difficult to treat. Studies have shown some success with the use of drainage implants.


Childhood glaucoma

Infantile glaucoma refers to the presence of glaucoma in a child and occurs in 1 in every 10,000 births in the United States. Congenital glaucoma is the common term used for glaucoma diagnosed in infancy or early childhood. This glaucoma is caused by abnormal drainage of intraocular fluid from the eye as a result of a blocked or defective trabecular meshwork (the mesh-like drainage channels in the eye). Congenital glaucoma may be due to an inherited defect or abnormal development during pregnancy.

In other cases, an abnormal drainage system may be the result of some other disease in the eye that causes secondary glaucoma. In these cases, glaucoma may be associated with recognizable problems of the iris (the colored part of the eye), cornea, or other problems.

Treatment for childhood glaucoma varies depending on the age of the child and the severity of the disease. Treatment options include medications, laser surgery, or filtering surgery.


Pseudoexfoliation syndrome

Pseudoexfoliation syndrome occurs when a scaly, dandruff-like material peels off the outer layer of the lens inside the eye. The material builds up in the angle between the cornea and the iris and can clog the eye’s drainage system. This obstruction can cause a buildup of eye pressure and can lead to a type of glaucoma called pseudoexfoliative glaucoma. Pseudoexfoliation syndrome, long recognized as common in Scandinavian descendants, is now seen more frequently in people of other ethnic backgrounds. Treatment for this syndrome includes medications, laser therapy, and filtering surgery.


Iridocorneal endothelial syndrome

Iridocorneal endothelial syndrome (ICE) is a rare form of glaucoma that is usually found in only one eye. In this condition, cells on the back surface of the cornea extend over the drainage tissue of the eye and across the surface of the iris. This causes increased eye pressure, which can damage the optic nerve. These cells also form adhesions that attach the iris to the cornea, further blocking the drainage channels.

ICE occurs more frequently in light-skinned women. Symptoms may include blurred vision upon waking and the appearance of halos around lights. CLI is difficult to treat and laser therapy is not an effective therapy. ICE is usually treated with medications or filtering surgery.